Schemas

Generating

$ mix phx.gen.html \
    Accounts \       # domain
    Profile \        # schema
    profiles \       # table name
    email:string \
    age:integer

Schema

defmodule Myapp.Accounts.User do
  use Ecto.Schema

  schema "users" do
    field :name
    field :age, :integer
    field :password, virtual: true

    timestamps()
  end
end

Field types

Field
:id
:binary
:boolean
:string
:integer
:float
:decimal
{:array, inner_type}
:map

Changesets

Changesets

def changeset(user, params \\ :empty) do
  %User{}
  |> Ecto.Changeset.change   # basic casting to changeset

  user
  |> cast(params, ~w(name email), ~w(age)) # params to Changeset

  |> validate_format(:email, ~r/@/)

  |> validate_inclusion(:age, 18..100)
  |> validate_exclusion(:role, ~w(admin superadmin))
  |> validate_subset(:pets, ~w(cat dog parrot whale))

  |> validate_length(:body, min: 1)
  |> validate_length(:body, min: 1, max: 160)
  |> validate_length(:partners, is: 2)

  |> validate_number(:pi, greater_than: 3)
  |> validate_number(:pi, less_than: 4)
  |> validate_number(:pi, equal_to: 42)

  |> validate_change(:title, fn _, _ -> [])
  |> validate_confirmation(:password, message: "does not match")

  |> unique_constraint(:email)
  |> foreign_key_constraint(:post_id)
  |> assoc_constraint(:post)      # ensure post_id exists
  |> no_assoc_constraint(:post)   # negative (useful for deletions)
end

Changeset fields

changeset.valid?
changeset.errors     #=> [title: "empty"]

changeset.changes    #=> %{}
changeset.params[:title]

changeset.required   #=> [:title]
changeset.optional   #=> [:body]

Updating

changeset #(or model)
|> change(title: "New title")
|> change(%{ title: "New title" })
|> put_change(:title, "New title")
|> force_change(:title, "New title")
|> update_change(:title, &(&1 <> "..."))

|> delete_change(:title)
|> merge(other_changeset)

|> add_error(:title, "empty")

Getting

get_change(changeset, :title)    #=> "hi" (if changed)
get_field(changeset, :title)     #=> "hi" (even if unchanged)

fetch_change(changeset, :title)  #=> {:ok, "hi"} | :error
fetch_field(changeset, :title)   #=> {:changes | :model, "value"} | :error

Repo

Get one

Repo.get(User, id)
Repo.get_by(User, email: "[email protected]")  #=> %User{} | nil

# also get! get_by!

Create/update

changeset |> Repo.update
changeset |> Repo.insert
changeset |> Repo.insert_or_update
User
|> Ecto.Changeset.change(%{name: "hi"})
|> Repo.insert

Many

Queries

from p in Post,
  where: p.title == "Hello",
  where: [state: "Sweden"],

  limit: 1,
  offset: 10,

  order_by: c.name,
  order_by: [c.name, c.title],
  order_by: [asc: c.name, desc: c.title],

  preload: [:comments],
  preload: [comments: {c, likes: l}],

  join: c in assoc(c, :comments),
  join: p in Post, on: c.post_id == p.id,
  group_by: p,

  select: p,
  select: {p.title, p.description},
  select: [p.title, p.description],

Get many

Repo.all(User)

Update many

Repo.update_all(Post, set: [title: "Title"])
Repo.update_all(Post, inc: [views: 1])

Chaining _all with queries

from(p in Post, where: p.id < 10)
|> Repo.update_all(...)

from(p in Post, where: p.id < 10)
|> Repo.all()

References